Pseudo-haptics: from the theoretical foundations to practical system design guidelines
In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI 2011). pages 57-64. 2011.
Pseudo-haptics, a form of haptic illusion exploiting the brain's capabilities and limitations, has been studied for about a decade. Various interaction techniques making use of it emerged in different fields. However, important questions remain unanswered concerning the nature and the fundamentals of pseudo-haptics, the problems frequently encountered, and sophisticated means supporting the development of new systems and applications. We provide the theoretical background needed to understand the key mechanisms involved in the perception of / interaction with pseudo-haptic phenomena. We synthesise a framework resting on two theories of human perception, cognition and action: The Interacting Cognitive Subsystems model by Barnard et al. and the Bayesian multimodal cue integration framework by Ernst et al. Based on this synthesis and in order to test its utility, we discuss a recent pseudo-haptics example. Finally, we derive system design recommendations meant to facilitate the advancement in the field of pseudo-haptics for user interface researchers and practitioners.