Temporal Aspects of CARE-based Multimodal Fusion: From a Fusion Mechanism to Composition Components and WoZ Components
In Proceedings of the 11th international conference on Multimodal interfaces (ICMI '09). pages 177-184. 2009.
The CARE properties (Complementarity, Assignment, Redundancy and Equivalence) define various forms that multimodal input interaction can take. While Equivalence and Assignment express the availability and respective absence of choice between multiple input modalities for performing a given task, Complementarity and Redundancy describe relationships between modalities and require fusion mechanisms. In this paper we present a summary of the works we have carried using the CARE properties for conceiving and implementing multimodal interaction, as well as a new approach using WoZ components. Firstly, we present different technical solutions for implementing the Complementarity and Redundancy of modalities with a focus on the temporal aspects of the fusion. Starting from a monolithic fusion mechanism, we then explain our component-based approach and the composition components (i.e., Redundancy and Complementarity components). As a new contribution for exploring solutions before implementing an adequate fusion mechanism as well as for tuning the temporal aspects of the performed fusion, we introduce Wizard of Oz (WoZ) fusion components. We illustrate the composition components as well as the implemented tools exploiting them using several multimodal systems including a multimodal slide viewer and a multimodal map navigator.