Multimodal Interaction with a Bifocal View on Mobile Devices
In Conference ACM ICMI 2015, 17th ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction, Seattle, November 9-13, 2015 (ICMI 2015). pages 191-198. 2015.
On a mobile device, the intuitive Focus+Context layout of a detailed view (focus) and perspective/distorted panels on either side (context) is particularly suitable for maximizing the utilization of the limited available display area. Interacting with such a bifocal view requires both fast access to data in the context view and high precision interaction with data in the detailed focus view. We introduce combined modalities that solve this problem by combining the well-known flick-drag gesture-based precise modality with modalities for fast access to data in the context view. The modalities for fast access to data in the context view include direct touch in the context view as well as navigation based on drag gestures, on tilting the device, on side-pressure inputs or by spatially moving the device (dynamic peephole). Results of a comparison experiment of the combined modalities show that the performance can be analyzed according to a 3-phase model of the task: a focus-targeting phase, a transition phase (modality switch) and a cursor-pointing phase. Moreover modalities of the focus-targeting phase based on a discrete mode of navigation control (direct access, pressure sensors as discrete navigation controller) require a long transition phase: this is mainly due to disorientation induced by the loss of control in movements. This effect is significantly more pronounced than the articulatory time for changing the position of the fingers between the two modalities (“homing” time).